A dashboard is the first screen you will see when you log in to your administrator area. It is basically a user interface window where you can see a number of tools which are used for different function. It contains all the basic tools required to create a website. You can customize and manage your website easily using the tools provided in the dashboard window. You can see a navigation panel on the left side of the window which is used to manage your plugins, pages, post, media and other things.
Basically, it is the admin area from where you can control all the sections of your website. The left side is the navigation area from where you can manage multiple things. The middle area is the work area from where you can add, edit, delete your content. You can access your admin area by using /wp-admin/ after your domain URL in the address bar of your web browser.
The WordPress dashboard menu contains a number of options like pages, plugins, posts, media, settings and many others. These options are used to customize and manage your website. You can also set permissions to your website by using settings tab given in the navigation menu.